Cosmetic surgery, like all other medical specialties, is a continually evolving field. It is unique in the blend of art, science and technology. The techniques involved include a stunning array of traditional and new innovated methods.
Blepharoplasty surgery: Eyelid surgery, or blepharoplasty, corrects droopy eyelids by removing excess skin, muscle and fat. Upper and lower eye lid can be corrected simultaneously to rejuvenate the eyes and protruding fat and excess skin can be addressed simultaneously by excision.
Brow and forehead lifts: This technique raises eyebrows and reduces ridges and furrows on the forehead, thus creating a smoother, more youthful appearance. This procedure can be performed in conjunction with other surgeries.
Newer techniques perform forehead lifting through small incisions in the scalp by using an endoscope and specialised instruments. This accelerates the healing process.
Face lift or rhytidectomy: It is designed to restore a more youthful appearance by removing major wrinkles and sagging skin. It involves tightening of the facial and neck muscles as well as the removal of any excess skin.
Nose surgery or rhinoplasty: Nose forms the centre of the face and can make either a good or a bad statement. The surgery of the nose involves changes to all or some parts in the nose and re-shaping.
Scar removal: A facial scar is frequently considered a cosmetic problem because of its location. There are several ways to make a facial scar less noticeable. Often, it is simply cut out and closed with tiny stitches, leaving a thinner, less noticeable scar. If the scar lies across the natural skin creases [or lines of relaxation], the surgeon may reposition it to run parallel to these lines, where it will be less conspicuous.
Some facial scars can also be softened using a technique called dermabrasion—a controlled scrapping of the top layers of the skin using a hand-held, high speed rotary wheel. This makes the skin surface smooth, but doesn’t completely erase the scar.
Z-plasty is another surgical technique used to reposition a scar so that it more closely conforms to the natural lines and creases of the skin, where it will be less noticeable. It can also relieve the tension caused by contracture [shortening of a muscle]. Not all scars lend themselves to Z-plasty, and it requires an experienced plastic surgeon to make such judgments.
Skin grafting, flaps, and low-dose steroid injections can also help in some cases.
Dimple creation: The demand for surgically created dimples is increasing. This is a safe and effective surgery, which is done under local anaesthesia as a day care procedure. Under local anaesthesia, a small depression is created in the muscle of cheek region. This is done through the inside of the mouth without external scars.
Botox: Botox is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum and is used as a paralysing agent for the muscles of expression. This weakens the fine muscles in the forehead, around the eyes and the glabellar areas [deep vertical and horizontal creases between the eyebrows]. As a result, frown lines, forehead creases and crow’s feet are reduced or eliminated.
Fillers: Injected fillers are primarily used to improve skin texture. It can help fill out deep facial wrinkles, creases and furrows, skin depressions and some types of scars. It can also be used to give a fuller and more sensuous look to the lips. Fillers are not usually sufficient for severe surface wrinkles on the face, such as multiple vertical ‘lipstick lines’ that sometimes form around the mouth.